Forests play a big role in maintaining the balance of our ecosystem. It helps in giving shelter and food to millions and millions of animal species. These forests cover almost 1/3rd of the earth and are separated according to their distance from the equator. Let’s look at the different types of forests that helps in balancing our ecosystem.
1. Tropical forests:
- These forests grow around the equator in South America, Southeast and Africa. They have the greatest species diversity per area in the world.
- The temperatures here are usually stable at 60 degree Fahrenheit.
- The rainfall in this type of forest is evenly distributed throughout the year, receiving approximately 200 cm.
- The soil in Tropical forests is acidic and nutrient poor.
- Includes numerous animal species, birds, mammals, insects and bats.
2. Temperate forests:
- It falls in the next latitude ring, in Northeastern Asia, Europe and North America.
- The temperature in the Temperate forests varies from -22 to 86 degree Fahrenheit.
- Annually, The forest receives 75-150 cm of rainfall.
- The soil in Temperate forests is generally fertile and rich with nutrients of the decayed leaves.
- On an average basis, there are 3 to 4 tree species per square kilometre. Some common types are beech, maple, oak, willow, hickory, elm, and birch.
- Along with numerous birds, some common faunas that live in Temperate forests are rabbits, squirrels, deer, bears, wolves and foxes.
3. Boreal forests:
- Also known as taiga or snow forest, Boreal forests are found between 50 and 60 degrees of latitude in the subarctic zone.
- This forest is the world’s largest land biome, i.e. a community of flora and fauna that has the similar characteristics of the surrounding they exist in.
- The temperatures in Boreal forests range from -40 to 68 degree Fahrenheit.
- Typically the precipitation is in the form of snow, 40 to 100 cm annually.
- The soil of Boreal forests is thin, nutrient poor and acidic in nature. The light rays rarely enter the area.
- Animals found in this forest include bears, deer, lynx, moose, woodpeckers and fox.